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communication2

Directions:

Write a 350 main post that responds to each question below.

Chapter 2 defines what your self-concept is and the role self-disclosure plays in human communication. The media and technology play a huge role in both of these processes.

Questions to Answer:

  • What are at least two different ways that mass media and technology contributes to the shaping of our self-concept? Provide specific examples to support your experiences and observations.
  • Does technology enhance or limit opportunities for self-disclosure? Why or why not?

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Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: -any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; - preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; - any rental, lease, or lending of the program..

Chapter Two: The Self and Perception

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Two Goals

 Define “self-concept”  Define “self-awareness”  Define “self-esteem”  Discover the process of self-disclosure  Learn the nature and workings of perception  Explain the strategies of impression

management

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Self in Human Communication

Who you are and how you see yourself influence not only the way you communicate but also how you respond to the communication of others.

 Self-concept  Self-awareness  Self-esteem  Self-awareness

Self-Concept

The image you of who you are, it’s how you perceive yourself.

Sources of Self Concept  Other people’s images of you  Social comparison  Cultural teachings  Self-interpretations and self-evaluations

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Self-awareness

 Who am I?  Basic to all communication and is achieved

when you examine several aspects of yourself as they might appear to others as well as to you

 Johari window is a tool that measure what we know and don’t know about ourselves

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Your Four Selves

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Growing in Self Awareness

 Listening to others  Increasing your open self  Seek information about self  Dialogue with yourself

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Self-Esteem

 Attack self-destructive beliefs  Beware of the Imposter Phenomenon  Seek out nourishing people  Work on projects that will result in success  Remind yourself of your successes  Secure affirmation

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Self-Disclosure  A type of

communication in which you reveal information about yourself

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Rewards of Self-Disclosure

 Gain self-knowledge  Improved coping abilities  Communication enhancement  More meaningful relationships

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rewards of Self-Disclosure

 Better self-knowledge  Stronger coping abilities  Improved communication  Meaningful relationships

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dangers of Self-Disclosure

 Personal risks  Relationship risks  Professional risks

Remember…like all communication, self- disclosure is irreversible. You can not self- disclose and then take it back.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Guidelines for Making Self-Disclosures

Things to consider:  The motivation  The appropriateness  The disclosures of the other person  The possible burdens self-disclosure might

entail

Self-Disclosing at Work?

 Assume it may be repeated  Realize it may be used against you  May lead to a loss of power  Disclosing a disability is your decision  You are not obligated to disclose based on a

colleague’s decision too

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Guidelines for Facilitating and Responding to Others’ Disclosures

 Support and reinforce the discloser  Be willing to reciprocate  Keep the disclosures confidential  Don’t use the disclosures against the

person

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Your Rights in Self-Disclosure

 Resist pressure to self-disclose if you are uncomfortable

 Do not be pushed into disclosing  Be indirect and move to other topics  Be assertive in protecting yourself

Stages of Perception

 Perception is a continuous series of processes that blend into one another. For discussion purposes, we divide these into five stages.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stimulation (Stage 1)

 First stage: our sense organs are stimulated  Selective perception  Selective attention  Selective exposure

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Organization (Stage 2)

 At the second stage, you organize the information your senses pick up. There are three rules that we tend to follow: – Proximity: Physical closeness – Similarity: Items that look alike – Contrast: Opposite of similarity

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Interpretation-Evaluation (Stage 3)

 Subjective  Influenced by experiences, needs, wants,

values, expectations, physical and emotional state, gender, and beliefs, rules, schemata, and scripts

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Memory (Stage 4) and Recall (Stage 5)

 Memory (Stage 4) – Storage of

stimulation – “Cognitive tags”

 Recall (Stage 5) – Reconstruction – Inaccuracies

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Impression Formation

An academic term for what we do everyday. We use a variety of processes to manage these impressions, called impression formation processes.  Self-Fulfilling prophecy  Primacy-Recency  Stereotyping  Attribution of Control

Self-fulfilling Prophecy

This occurs when a prediction becomes true because you act as if it were true.

1. Formulate a prediction or belief 2. Act towards situation as if belief were true 3. Because of your actions, belief becomes

true 4. Your observed effect reinforces the belief

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Primacy-Recency

 Primacy effect – What comes first exerts the most influence on your overall perception

 Recency effect – What comes last exerts the most influence on your overall perception

 Be careful of relying to heavily on first impressions

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stereotyping

 One of the most common shortcuts in perception

 Fixed (and often distorted) impression of a group of people

 Causes us to overlook individual characteristics and see people solely based on the stereotype

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Attribution of Control

 Process of explaining why someone acted as he or she did.

 Three potential errors: – Self-serving bias – Overattribution – Fundamental attribution error

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Increasing Accuracy in Impression Formation  Analyze impressions

– Recognize your own role in perception – Avoid early conclusions – Beware of the just world hypothesis

 Check your perceptions – Describe what you see/hear and seek

confirmation  Reduce your uncertainty  Increase cultural sensitivity

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Impression Management: Goals and Strategies

 Also called: self-presentation or identity management

 Refers to the processes you go through to communicate the impression you want other people to have of you

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Strategies of Impression Management

 Affinity-seeking and politeness  Credibility  Self-handicapping  Self-deprecating  Self-monitoring  Influencing  Image-confirming

Copyright ©2014, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

End Show

  • PowerPoint Presentation
  • Chapter Two Goals
  • The Self in Human Communication
  • Self-Concept
  • Slide 5
  • Self-awareness
  • Your Four Selves
  • Growing in Self Awareness
  • Self-Esteem
  • Self-Disclosure
  • The Rewards of Self-Disclosure
  • Rewards of Self-Disclosure
  • Dangers of Self-Disclosure
  • Guidelines for Making Self-Disclosures
  • Self-Disclosing at Work?
  • Guidelines for Facilitating and Responding to Others’ Disclosures
  • Your Rights in Self-Disclosure
  • Stages of Perception
  • Stimulation (Stage 1)
  • Organization (Stage 2)
  • Interpretation-Evaluation (Stage 3)
  • Memory (Stage 4) and Recall (Stage 5)
  • Impression Formation
  • Self-fulfilling Prophecy
  • Primacy-Recency
  • Stereotyping
  • Attribution of Control
  • Increasing Accuracy in Impression Formation
  • Impression Management: Goals and Strategies
  • Strategies of Impression Management
  • End Show

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